The Golden Turkey Awards is a 1980 book by film critics Michael and Harry Medved. It was one of four books by the Medveds that examined notoriously bad films. The others were The Fifty Worst Films of All Time (1978), The Hollywood Hall of Shame (1984), and Son of the Golden Turkey Awards (1986).
Many of the films and people referred to in the book(s) were later featured on Mystery Science Theater 3000, including Ed Wood (who "won" the award for Worst Director), and Mamie Van Doren and John Agar (who were nominated for Worst Actress and Actor, respectively).
The mocking spirit of the Golden Turkey Awards could be considered a spiritual predecessor of Mystery Science Theater 3000.